Today in World History: October 30th

The Armistice of Mudros was signed by the Allies and the Ottoman Empire on this day in 1918, ending World War One in the Middle East. After the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, along with Bulgaria, it entered into a war against France and Great Britain, both of which sought to expand their colonial possessions in Africa and Asia. With Ottoman lands in Palestine and Northern Africa, it became a target for the two empires. Despite the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the recent centuries, it was a formidable foe, leading the Allies to adopt a strategy that brought the different cultural groups in the Ottoman Empire into rebellion. Lawrence of Arabia was one of many notable British and French soldiers that traveled across the empire, inciting rebellions. The weakened empire fell into Allied hands, and were forced to surrender. In the peace treaty signed, the Ottoman Empire was forced to leave the war against the Allies, and an independence movement later overthrew the Sultanate, establishing a Turkish Republic in its stead. In 1920, a treaty signed by the two parties divided control over Ottoman lands outside Turkey, setting in motion the events that would eventually lead to the creation of the state of Israel and the religious tensions in the Middle East.

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