The October Revolution, in which Bolshevik supporters established the Soviet Union, began on this day in 1917. Following the end of the Russian Tsardom the previous February, a provisional government was put in place as the Russia nation transitioned to its first democracy in its centuries of existence. The Bolsheviks criticized the actions of the government put in place following the revolution, demanding a new one be instated. They led an armed rebellion, capturing the Winter Palace by the next day. The rebellion began a three year civil war, in which previous Russian Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family were shot and murdered by the Bolsheviks. Russia forfeited from World War One, and countries like Poland and Lithuania took the opportunity to secede from the empire. The Bolsheviks won the war in the end, creating Soviet Russia, a communist country that would dominate politics in Eastern Russia and Asia until its dissolution in 1991 and the creation of modern Russia.