Today in World History: September 29

The Munich Agreement was created on this day in 1938. The conference, attended by the major powers of Europe, save for the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia. During Hitler’s militarization of Germany and the Rhineland, he began demanding territory taken from Germany following the end of World War One be returned to him, and so targeted the Sudetenland, the Western region of Czechoslovakia, largely inhabited by German speakers. The Nazi regime began demanding concessions from the Allied Powers, and seeking a resolution and to avoid war with Germany, they agreed to convene in Munich. What resulted from the conference was an agreement to issue an ultimatum to Czechoslovakia, demanding the return of the Sudetenland to Germany. Czechoslovakia was forced to give up the territory, only months after the Anschluss, the German annexation of Austria. The Munich Agreement was the last agreement of concessions to the Nazi regime before the German invasion of Poland and the ensuing World War. Following the end of the war, parts of the Sudetenland were returned to the Czech Republic, and all Germans were expelled from the country.

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