Today in World History: September 23rd

The Italian Social Republic, the government set up by Nazi Germany in Northern Italy, was proclaimed on this day in 1943. Following the Allied Invasion of Sicily and the arrest of Benito Mussolini, the new Italian government, with help from King Emmanuel III, began secret peace talks with the Allies. In response to a treaty announcement between Italy and the Allies, German forces moved in from the North, establishing a puppet government with Rome as its capital. This new government was vastly weaker than its predecessor, and Mussolini and his government heavily relied on German troops to keep the peace, as citizens began protesting for his removal from office and the re-institution of a democracy. The Social Republic only lasted until April 25th of 1945, when Allied forces and Italian citizens made one last push to force the Germans out of Italy. They succeeded, managing to expel Germany from Northern Italy, capturing Mussolini and killing him and his mistress on April 28th, three days later. April 25th is now known in Italy as Liberation Day, and marks the end of the second fascist government of Italy, and the beginning of a new age for the Italian people.

The supreme quality for leadership is unquestionably integrity. Without it, no real success is possible, no matter whether it is on a section gang, a football field, in an army, or in an office.

-Dwight D. Eisenhower
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