Following the Pacific War of World War Two, forty-eight nations, along with Japan, signed the Treaty of San Francisco on this day in 1951. Following Japan’s surrender in 1945, the details of the treaty had yet to be determined, with both sides having to give up overseas possessions, as well as Japan being forced to pay reparations to the Allies. Countries from around the world attended the conference, including Canada, the United States, Australia, Spain, Russia, and China. Despite a final deal being made, China, Russia, and Ceylon protested the deals, with China not being invited due to conflicting opinions on which government to invite by England and America. Because England wished to invite the People’s Republic of China, while the Untied States wished to invite the Republic of China, neither was invited in the end. Ceylon protested for a free Japan, despite their involvement in World War Two. Russia, however, protested almost everything about the treaty, including the exclusion of China, America’s seizing of colonies in the Pacific, the treaty’s not recognizing of Russian lands, and the exclusion of the Soviet Union from treaty negotiations. The Soviet Union would not end the war with Japan until 1956. In the end however, the treaty marked the end of Japanese imperialism, along with the independence of many Pacific colonies, including Indonesia.