Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, ensured the Greek city states’ safety and prosperity on this day in 338 B.C.E. when he defeated the Persian forces, and effectively ending his campaign in Greece. The Persian Empire had long threatened Greek cities, as the fractured political system of the independent states could not match the united power of an empire. However, Philip, leading the city states as a single alliance, managed to defeat the Persian Empire in a year long campaign, deciding the future of the world, as it saw the downfall of the Persian Empire, the rise of Ptolemaic Egypt, and the setting the stage for future wars and empires. His military cunning led to the creation of a strong Macedonian state, and when he was assassinate in 336 B.C.E. by one of his bodyguards, his son, Alexander, inherited a powerful nation, capable of dominating the known world. Philip’s actions in the campaign against Persia are recognized as some of the most defining of ancient history, along with those of his son, Julius Caesar, and Octavian.