The Ottoman Empire, the Turkish Empire that dominated the Middle East during the Middle Ages and brought about the end of the Byzantine Empire is considered to have begun its formation on this day in 1299, as the Ottoman State. Osman I, the Turkish ruler, invaded Nicomedia on this day, as Sultan of Rum. Yet another claimant to Rome, Osman’s Rum grew to dominate Turkey, and eventually, conquered Constantinople, with the rest of Greece and much of Eastern Europe following soon after. Osman also gave his name to the following Empire, and would die at the age of sixty-eight in 1326. Osman’s successors would go on to conquer Egypt, along with much of the former Seljuk Empire and Northern Africa. It would prove to be a major force in European politics in the following centuries, and it would survive until the 20th century before joining Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War One, and provoking the Allies, who quickly brought about its end and the formation of Turkey. Although the Ottoman domination of Politics was largely over by the end of the 17th century, its actions in the downfall of Byzantium and its wars with the major powers would shape the land, and transforming the religious landscape of Europe as well.