On this day in 842, Charles the Bald of West Francia and Louis the German of East Francia signed the Oaths of Strasbourg. The grandsons of Karl “the Great” or Charlemagne, they inherited what would now be Northern France and Germany, respectively. Other kingdoms to be divided up from Charlemagne’s empire included Southern France, or Aquitaine, Bavaria, Northern Italy, and Lotharingia, a narrow strip of land that stretched from the Netherlands to Switzerland. Despite their common heritage, wasrs often broke out between these kingdoms, and only when the Oaths of Strasbourg were signed did a formal alliance and peace between the strongest of these nations come forth. Eventually, Aquitaine and West Francia were united, to create the Kingdom of France, Italy was divided into numerous states, many of which joined the Holy Roman Empire, which ruled over Bavaria, East Francia, and Lotharingia.