The coronation of Emperor Taizu of China marked the beginning of the Song dynasty in 960 A.D.. China prospered under the Song rulers, expanding its population at such a fast rate that its population doubled in the 10th and 11th centuries. They also utilized the new Chinese invention of gunpowder, augmenting its weapons to facilitate the deadly power of this tool. They also fostered the creation of great works of art, making printing presses to advance the education of its citizens. Toward the end of Song dynasty rule, the empire split in half, making it vulnerable to invasions. The Mongol hordes, led by Genghis Khan, toppled the Northern Song Empire, while the Southern Song Empire held out until Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan, conquered the Southern Empire too, and proclaimed the Yuan dynasty, ending Chinese rule in China from 1271-1368.