Another battle of the 100 Years’ War was decided today when the city of Rouen surrendered to the English in 1419. The final French stronghold in Normandy, its surrender ended the English reconquest of Normandy. It would later be recaptured by France, along with the rest of modern France’s land. England was thus expelled from mainland Europe. France then truly became independent of England’s influence, and soon after started the Anglo-French wars in the Americas. Although France proved the better in Europe, England quickly overtook colonial France to become the most powerful Empire of the time.